Principles of Thoracic Surgery. Pneumothorax. Lung Transplant
1.-To describe the most common procedures used in the diagnosis of thoracic surgical pathology.
2.-Learning factors affecting overall and preoperative functional assessment. Know the different medical measures to be considered in the preoperative and the criteria that determine the operability and resectability of lung parenchyma.
3.-To analyze the physiological changes that occur after thoracotomy and know the most frequent complications.
4.-Meet surgical paths, as well as major and minor surgical procedures most frequently used in the treatment of thoracic pathology.
5.-Knowing videothoracoscopic surgical approach to thoracic disease processes.
6.-Learning the pathophysiology of bullous emphysema. Concepts of bleb and bulla.
7.-Understand concepts and indications for bullectomy and lung volume reduction surgery.
8.-Develop diagnostic and treatment algorithm for spontaneous and traumatic pneumothorax.
9.-Formalize an algorithm treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax, depending mainly on the lack of lung re-expansion and relapsing pneumothorax.
10.-Understand the importance and the current impact of lung transplantation and its future prospects.
11.-Having historical notions of the beginning of organ transplantation. Preservation techniques, extraction and implantation.
12.-Knowing the types of transplants and their elemmental immunological basis that will affect the principles of immunosuppressive therapy in preventing rejection.
13.-Describe the main points of each of transplant types (single lung, double lung or heart) done today.
14.-Know the major complications that can occur after a transplant.
Congenital Diseases. Pathology of the diaphragm. Tracheal pathology
1 -. Diagnose and describe the treatment of the most prevalent deformities of chest wall (pectus excavatum-carinatum).
2.-To analyze the differences of congenital lung cysts depending on the clinic, its communication with the tracheobronchial tree, the presence of vascular anomalies and treatment.
3.-Meet the clinic, how to diagnose and treat congenital mediastinal cysts.
4.-Identify pulmonary sequestration as an example of mixed congenital malformation (vascular and bronchopulmonary). Distinguish between intralobar and extralobar pulmonary sequestration, their most common locations, clinical and radiological expression, current methods for the demonstration of aberrant arterial vessel and abnormal venous drainage and treatment.
5.-Know clinical, diagnostic examinations and treatment of congenital anomalies of the trachea and esophagus more prevalent, especially TEF (tracheo-esophageal fistula).
6.-Remember the key stages of embryonic development that determine the anatomy of the diaphragm. Meet a brief description of the fetal circulation.
7.-Differentiate the various congenital hernias based on their clinical and treatment. Meet the clinic and treatment of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and injuries associated with greater frequency.
8.-To describe the clinical and treatment of congenital and acquired diaphragmatic hernias.
9.-Establish the clinical and radiological suspicion of abnormal pulmonary arteries or veins, depending on its severity, age and clinical presentation. Arguing the role of imaging techniques, echocardiography and invasive examinations in their diagnostic confirmation. Establish the basis of treatment.
10.-To analyze the existence of tumor tracheal lesions caused by infection, trauma (cervical or thoracic trauma, wounds), iatrogenic (tracheal intubation, tracheostomy) and neoplastic ones.
11.-Describe the most common complications of this type of injury.
12. Learn the clinical manifestations of the trachea and upper bronchi injuries.
13.-Analyze the surgical indications for tracheal stenosis.
14.-Know the different benign and malignant tumors of the trachea differentiating secondary tumors and indications for surgical treatment.
- Describe the epidemiological data. Underline those that refer to the segment of the affected population and their associated morbidity and mortality. Establish its importance and basic prevention measures.
2.-To determine the initial or primary evaluation to be conducted by multiple trauma. Describe the primary injuries that aggravate the clinical picture of these patients. Establish the general therapeutic basis to be applied in the initial phase. Insist on the ABC of major trauma: unblocking the airway with cervical spine protection, ensure patient oxygenation (decompressing pneumothorax, if required) and treat shock.
3.-Discuss all explorations and actions to be taken for the permeability of the airway, and the maintenance of adequate ventilation and mechanical circulatory requirements.
4.-Analyze thoracic injuries involving immediate threat of death and that should be identified at the stage of primary evaluation.
5.-Define open chest trauma, establishing its frequency, most frequent causes, diagnosis and initial management. Distinguish penetrating chest wounds.
6.- Analyze the potentially lethal chest injuries identified during the secondary survey.
7 -. Know the fundamental clinical and radiological data for the diagnosis of these lesions as well as their surgical indications.
8.-Analyze and discuss the mistakes made most often to patients with chest trauma.