Generation and properties of enolates and other stabilized carbanions. Regioselectivity and stereoselectivity in enolate formation from ketones and esters. Alkylation of different enolates. Generation and alkylation of dianions. Intramolecular alkylation of enolates. The nitrogen analogs of enols and enolates: enamines and imine anions. Aldol condensation of aldehydes and ketones. Crossed aldol condensations. Aldol cyclizations. Design synthesis using aldol condensations. Conjugate addition of enolates. Preparation and reactivity of organolithium, Grignard reagents and organocuprates. Palladium catalyzed reactions: Heck, Suzuki, Stille and Neguishi reactions. Cycloadditions. Electrocyclic reactions. Sigmatropic rearrangements.