Synthesis of sulfonates and halides from alcohols. Interconversion of carboxylic acid derivatives. Protection and deprotection of functional groups. Aromatic electrophilic substitution. Aromatic nucleophilic substitution. Eliminations. Addition to multiple bonds. Concept of oxidation and reduction in organic molecules. Oxidation of a single carbon. Oxidation of two adjacent carbon. Oxidation of other atoms. Catalytic hydrogenation. Metal reduction. Hydride reduction. Other reductions.