Nucleic acid. DNA replication, mutation, and repair. Gene expression and regulation.
All living organisms share the molecular nature of their genetic information, which resides in their genes, in the form of DNA or RNA. Most features of genes, as its structure, organization, expression mechanisms, regulation and transmission are also conserved. Genetics is the study of genes and Molecular Genetics deals with the expression of genes and its regulation. Advances in Molecular Genetics have made possible the birth of Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biotechnology, so that their study is essential for a biotechnologist.