- General introduction to the central nervous system.
- Anatomy of the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, and cerebellum.
- Anatomy of the mesencephalon and diencephalon.
- Anatomy of the telencephalon.
Cellular components of the nervous system.
Types of cells in the nervous system. Morphological and functional types of neurons. Structure of dendrites and axons.
- Intercellular contact. Types of synapse. Structure of the neuromuscular junction.
- The glia: Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, function of astrocytes and microglia, neuron-glia interactions.
- Structure of peripheral nerves. Axonal myelination.
Human brain dissection. Students visit the Faculty of Medicine Dissection Room and review the material explained during class lectures and perform sagittal, coronal, and horizontal cuts on human tissue sections. A human brain is dissected to analyze the relationships between its different anatomical structures.
Mouse brain microscopic anatomy. With a microscope, students review and identify the correlations between the basic subdivisions of a mouse brain with the human brain.
Competencies and learning outcomes
- Recognize and understand the normal structure of the nervous system at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and system levels.
- Understand the basics and efficacy of therapeutic interventions based on scientific evidence.
- Using macroscopic, microscopic, molecular, and electrophysiological methods recognize the nervous system's structure and function.
- Identify the morphology and structure of different parts of the nervous system, searching for the correlation in basic subdivisions between human and murine brains, generally used as experimental models.
- Characterize the cellular components of the vertebrate nervous system, understanding their functional properties and contribution to the operation of circuits.
- Describe the cellular and molecular bases of neuronal communication and signaling.
- Understand the regulatory mechanisms of neurogenesis, axonal guidance, neuronal migration and differentiation.
- Understand the mechanisms involved in cerebral cortex regionalization and development.
- Evaluate how anatomical and functional connectivity of the nervous system is analyzed and how it is reorganized under normal and pathological conditions.
- Understand the basics about microscopic and macroscopic imaging techniques in neuroscience.
Methodology and grading
- Continuous assessment in classes, seminars and practicals. Evaluation of review papers. Exam of the theoretical contents of the subject.