- Remember the anatomo-physiological bases of pleura. Describe the possible mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusion.
- Sort pleural effusions according to their etiology.
- Recognize the signs and symptoms caused by pleural effusion.
- Describe the most characteristic radiological aspects of pleural disease and the most useful techniques for their diagnosis.
- Describe the simultaneous extrapleural symptoms and signs that may characterize a particular etiology.
- Report the diagnostic algorithm for a pleural effusion.
- To define the indications for thoracentesis and rentability. Select the biochemical determinations, bacteriological, cytological or other to be practiced in pleural fluid according to the suspected etiology.
- Indicate the diagnostic value of the different findings provided by the study of pleural fluid. Know the Light Criteria and alternatives for differentiation between transudates and exudates.
- Know the main causes and their main differential features for the most common causes of transudates and exudates.
Diseases of the mediastinum. Diseases of the pleura.
1.- Learn the anatomy of the mediastinum, and its relations with neighboring organs.
2.- Know the anatomical divisions of the mediastinum and list the different mediastinal lesions, depending on their compartmentalization.
3.- Describe the symptoms and radiological findings of the various mediastinal tumors and cysts.
4.- Know the indications for different surgical options for the treatment of such diseases.
5.- Establish the differential diagnosis with the most prevalent diseases on the basis of clinical, radiological and laboratory data.
6.- Differentiate between acute and chronic mediastinitis. Define the concept of pneumomediastinum and hemomediastinum.
7.- Establish the differential diagnosis with other infectious diseases of the mediastinum.
8.- Recognize the superior vena cava syndrome from a clinical point of view, as well as its relationship with certain entities that affect the mediastinum.
9.- Understand the concept and stages of pleural empyema, classifying in acute and chronic, describing their causes, symptoms, complications and indications, as well as surgical treatments.
10.- To describe the most common tumors of the chest wall and list the primary and secondary pleural tumors.
11.- Define a mesothelioma and its oncological characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments and possible complications, and prognosis.
12.- Differentiate pleural fibrous tumor as a prototype of pleural tumor of low grade malignancy.
13.- Having information about the different methods of pleural symphysis or pleurodesis.
14.- List the indications of blind pleural biopsy, thoracoscopy and exploratory thoracotomy.
15.- Develop an algorithm for diagnostic management of pleural effusion.
16.- Define the concepts of hemothorax, chylothorax, pseudochylothorax and fibrothorax.
17.- Outline therapeutic strategy to follow, with special reference to that employed in pleural effusions secondary to pneumonia and neoplasms.