Emerging technologies in surgery: IT, electronics, and robotics. Minimally invasive surgery. Intelligent operating rooms. Bioadhesives. Ceramic, metallic, polymeric, and composite biomaterials. Chemical and physicochemical properties of biomaterials. Legislation. Application of biomaterials in clinical practice.
Over fifty million people worldwide have implemented some type of prosthesis and is well known in our society the usefulness and necessity of all types of implants made. Biomaterials are intended for application in living things, and for manufacturing coordination of experts from many fields is required. The field of biomaterials has experienced spectacular progress in recent years and an important motivation for this was the fact that life expectancy will increase considerably.
According to the ONU, one in ten people aged 60 or more, but in 2050 is expected to be one in five. It is also anticipated that the number of those 80 years will be multiplied by five. The massive longevity has individual implications related to maintaining quality of life. These sociological factors have led to a breakthrough in Biomaterials, and have enhanced research in this field. If to this is added the improved surgical techniques, can be understood accelerated in the use of prosthetic implants, medical devices and systems that must work in contact with body tissues growth.
Biomaterials must comply with conditions starting to be biocompatible and ensure a certain half-life. In turn, they have to provide specific features that require the application to their intended purpose.
Initially, during the last third of the twentieth century, biomaterials were essentially industrial materials selected on the basis they were able to meet certain requirements of biological acceptability. However, today many biomaterials are designed, synthesized and processed for the sole purpose of having an application in the medical field.